Definite vs Indefinite Articles: A Complete Guide
In English, there are two types of articles: definite and indefinite. They are words that define a noun as either specific or unspecific. From this definition alone, articles may appear as something grammatically complex. However, the truth is that definite and indefinite articles are some of the most frequently used words in the English language! Native speakers use them unconsciously, but learners may struggle to use them correctly. Now, it is important to note that many languages do not use definite and indefinite articles. As such, distinguishing between the two can prove to be a rather difficult concept to get your head around.
So, what are articles? And how do we use them?
The Definite Article
‘The’ is the definite article in English. It limits the meaning of a noun to one specific thing. For example, your friend might ask you, “Are you going to the wedding this Sunday?”. The definite article tells you that your friend is referring to one particular wedding that both of you know about. The definite article can be used with singular, plural, as well as with uncountable nouns. Examples: Can you close the window?, Can you pass me the water bottle?, My favourite book is on the table, The party is taking place this weekend.
As you may already know, possessive pronouns can also indicate the specificity of items. However, the definite article and possessive pronouns should not be used together – this get’s confusing for the reader or listener. To illustrate, do ensure that you say either ‘Where is my book?’ or ‘Where is the book?’. In other words, only use one or the other depending on the intended meaning.
The Indefinite Article
‘A’ or ‘an’ are indefinite articles in English. They tell you that the noun refers to a general idea rather than something particular. For example, your friend could ask you, “Should I bring a gift to the wedding?”. Here, you will identify the gift as something general because you are not referring to a specific thing or item. Examples, Can you recommend a book?, I will bring a dessert to the party., A bus should be arriving soon.
It is important to remember that indefinite articles only appear with singular nouns and cannot be used with plural or uncountable nouns. For such cases, uncountable nouns can be modified using words such as, some. However, if you describe such nouns in terms of countable units, then indefinite articles can be used. For instance, I would like some water vs. I would like a bottle of water.
In short, there are three ground rules that you can follow that will assist you when discerning between which of the various articles to use.
Rule no 1: “The” is a definite article and is used when you are referring to, or talking about something specific. You know the person, thing or place.
Rule no 2: “A” or “an” are indefinite articles and are used when talking about something generally, or if you are talking about a thing, place or person for the first time.
And rule no 3: “The” is used when talking about something for the second, third, fourth, fifth etc. time. For example, you could say, “I’m going to read a book. The book is about …”. Here, when talking about said ‘book’ generally for the first time, the indefinite article was used. However, in the second sentence, the definite article was used because we are referring to this noun again. We are talking about one specific thing.
Have you mastered definite and indefinite articles? Let us know your thoughts!